Built 900 years ago, this fortress once served as a prison and also as a miliary post. It was built by Price Archbishop Eberhard in 1077. Initially it was built of wood and served for the protection of Imperial troops of the Holy Roman Empire. During the struggle for power between Pope Gregor VII and Emperor Henry IV, Prince Archbishop Eberhard decided to stand by the Pope.
Prince Archbishop Konrad I built a stone tower during his reign. Conflicts between Bavaria and Austria posed continued threats for Slazburg and Hohensalburg Fortress and so was improved further.
Prince Archbishop Burkhard III. von Weißpriach built the four main towers along the outer wall. Burkhard's successor Prince Archbishop Bernhard Von Rohr built the bastion to protect from the rebel of the miners and the also to suppress rich patricians'struggle for more power. Salzburg also feared an invasion of Turkish troops.
Prince Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach changed the purpose of the fortress from a militaristic and strategistic one to a representative one. He invested large amounts of money into decorations, modernisation and extensions to make the fortress a pleasant castle. Keutschach shaped the fortress and until today it has not changed in any fundamental way.
During the 30 years war, Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron modernised the Festung (fortress) by altering the roofs and outer walls. City walls were also built.
After the Napoleonic wars, when Salzburg became part of Austria, the fortress served as a prison and an army camp. During world War I, it was used to imprison Italian officers as prisoners of war.
Nazi underground terrorists were exiled in the fortress in 1934. This was the last time that the festung held prisoners.
In 1965 a successful musical "Sound of Music" was made a movie in the original locations of Salzburg and surrounding. Here in this picture you see Julie Andrews (Maria in the movie) with the Hohensalzburg as the backdrop.